( TAMBLINGAN SANCTUARY )
A scheme preserve threatened Ecology and Culture
Tamblingan is an area centered on Lake Tamblingan with a number of dependant villages. The name probably derives from Balinese world Tambe Ilang meaning lost of power. Historically Tamblingan Lake and the surrounding area have features very strongly in Balinese particularly for people living in the northern and south western part of the island. The Tamblingan area has been known as a cultural and spiritual centre since the rule of King Ugrasena (915 – 936 AD) and Sri Paduka Bhatari Sri Parameswara (1398 AD). The lake is located about 5 km Munduk village. Its size about 115 Ha, depth 24 m, the capacity to store water is about 27 million cubic meters from the catching rainfall forest of 4670 Ha.
A bronze inscription, called Gobleg Pura Batur A from the 10th Century AD mentioned Ugrasena as the King who ruled the area of Wisnawa, Bhaskara and Tana. Another old Gobleg Pura Batur B mentions villages or settlement which under control of Tamblingan namely Hunusan (now called Unusan) Pangi, Kedu and Tengah Mel ( now called Tengemel ). The last Hindu Kingdom of east java called Majapahit and under a great Prime Minister Gajah Mada, sent an expedition to prepare for the invasion of Bali in 1343. It was reported that they pass through a number of village such as Kayuputih, Banyuatis, Gesing and Yeh Song ( now called Esong ), Munduk and tamblingan. They settled at Tamblingan before moving to occupy Bali . A number of ancient ceramic and stone artifacts have been found by fishermen (Pan Niki 1987) and the archeological at Kayuputih and Tigawasa village. An ancient stone Linggam-Yoni and a number of stone wash basin which normally used for soaking by the smiths found in the area. Those indications are that Tamblingan and the surrounding area have existed as cultural centre for around 2000 years.
Since Buleleng Kingdom fell under Dutch control in 1894, the four villages of Gobleg, Munduk, Gesing and Umejero have been influenced by western culture. This is evident today in the remaining Dutch architecture and the commodity plantation such as Coffee, Vanilla, Clove and Cocoa . In 1952 the first combine Balinese / western music concert was preformed in front of the first President (Soekarno) at the Governor Sunda Kecil when the traditional Balinese gamelan was played by musician from Munduk. Tamblingan remained as cultural as the central of cultural and spiritual influence until Gajah Mada period. However the cultural and spiritual beliefs continue to this today. On a fairly regular basis believers in the old Hindu concept arrange their ritual ceremony starting at the rivers in Munduk, Gesing and moving to Tamblingan Lake an then to the sea temple at labuhan Aji near Lovina. Comparing this to the concept of Tri Angga Sarira, we can consider Tamblingan and the Mount Lesong region as the head (nucleus) of four villages district of Gobleg, Gesing, Umejero and Munduk village lower down are the middle of the body (secondary, for human settlement) and the beach and the sea are compared to our lowest body or tertiary, for cleansing, before human being returning back to the creator.
From the current scientific point of view, the fragile structure of mountainous area (nucleus) needs to be protected from potential devastation caused by erosion and landslide. This can be only achieved by maintaining and protecting the natural biodiversity of the area. Already large areas of tropical forest in Bali have been destroyed living open area more prone to natural disaster. The source of water for drinking and agriculture arise in the mountains giving further cause of concern. These points must be born in mind along with policies of sustainability when considering any development in Bali .
In conclusion it is evident that many essential resources for a large area of Bali originate from Tamblingan area. It supplies our present water, energy and life need and must be protected and maintained to guarantee our future live hood and happiness. This philosophy compares well with the Balinese Tri Hita Karana and Tri Angga Sarira concept.
A SCHEME TO PRESERVE THREARENED ECOLOGY AND CULTURE.
It has been demonstrated in the background topic that from the spiritual point of view Tamblingan is much respected and a holy area. There is another very important function of Tamblingan as sanctuary for keeping alive all ecology which exist in the area. It is sources of water supply of drinking for human being and for irrigates the land to support the live hood of people in the area. Therefore Tamblingan as a very strategic function to maintain the balance between the spiritual and physical need of all people who lived in the Tamblingan area.
The record from Forestry department of Banjar District show that the area comprises 12.000 hectares of protected wild forest, 270 hectares of preserved and 400 hectares set aside for tourism. There are four villages which are totally dependant on the Tamblingan Lake for their water supply:
Gobleg with the population of 5.298 covering hectares ( 79 wet, 1610.455 dry )
Munduk with population of 6.200 covering 1262.754 hectares ( 139.74 wet. 1297 dry )
Gesing with population of 2.941.620 covering 1231.620 hectares ( 56 wet, 1175.620 dry )
Umejero with population of 2. 757 covering 1006.470 hectares ( 89.250 wet, 883.890 dry ).
The agriculture in the area has diversified in this century from the original staple crop of rice and now includes coffee ( both Robusta and Arabica variety are grown ), Clove which were introduced by the Dutch about 40 years ago are now becoming more predominant, Vanilla, Fruit and Flowers. The economy is still a rural one with no industry.
Lake Tamblingan has three main functions:
The four villages listed above are totally and directly dependant of the lake for their water supply, but in addition other villages in the district of Busungbiu, Seririt and Banjar with a further population of 150.000 also rely for their water supply from the lake. For example the waterfall at Munduk is the source of water for the three villages with the water being channeled and pipe. The water from lake is essential to maintaining the agriculture area (egg to supply the necessary flooding of the paddy fields), and also supplies the drinking and other needs of population.
2. As a religious center
It has already been demonstrated in the background paper that Tamblingan is very respected and holy area from the spiritual point of view. There are 12 center of spiritual importance which have been continues use by the local people especially those still practice the Gobleg ritual ( Siva Muka Bulakan Followers ) for many years.
3.As an ecological sanctuary
The area contains a wide diversity of flora and fauna and up until now their natural resources have not been impaired by the activities of human being so that the ecological balance has been maintained and the solid biosphere has existed. However this balance is a fragile one could very easily be disrupted by activities such as tourism.
It is important that the dedicate balance which at present exist in the area between nature and human activities should be maintained so that the natural resources of the area are not destroyed. This is important not only to preserve the beauty of the area it self, but also to preserve the way of life and cultural heritage of the people who life there. The unspoiled quality of the area means that is very attractive to visitor but there is a real danger that uncontrolled tourism will not only harm the way of life of the inhabitants and their quality of life, but with also destroy the very qualities which lead visitor to come to the area. Any development of the area should take account of the need to preserve the ecological balance, and its mean that the use made of the natural resources must be carefully controlled eq motor boats should not be allowed on the lake. Anything which harms Tamblingan as a source of water supply will not only upset the ecology but as consequent of the area as a spiritual center will also be harmed by undue commercialization, and this would have an adverse effect on the spiritual and cultural live of the people. Using the Hindu concept of Bali , the basin can be equated to TRI ANGGA SARIRA concept in which the upper Tamblingan area is Utama, the Catura Desa regions is Madya and the lower part at Umeanyar, Lovina and Labuhan Aji is the foot or Nista.
The importance of the function is obvious for ensuring the continuance of the people's life style and life hood. As we can see from the ecology view point of the area from the Tamblingan down to Seririt and Banjar district forms a solid biosphere area with need continuous protection. From the view point of Hindu concept in Bali this basin area can be equated with the Tri Angga concept in which upper Tamblingan area considered as Utama. Therefore from the view of point both of Tri Angga and the solid biosphere concept, the Tamblingan area must be protected strictly as long as we believe that the human civilization has to be passed on from generation to generation. Therefore it is essential this biosphere area should be promoted as sanctuary site to be called TAMBLINGAN SANCTUARY.
The whole of the area Tamblingan down to Seririt and Banjar district form a solid biosphere which needs continuing protection. This can only achieved by establishing a sanctuary which will preserve the lake as a source of water supply and control the development of the area as to preserve the ecology and the life style and culture of the people.
With the obvious necessity to give the Tamblingan area a more economic function there is a prime needs to consider the historical environmental factors outlined above. Urgent steps are necessary to preserve the essential function of the Tamblingan rain forest complete its natural heritages.
PROPOSAL TO CREATE A SANCTUARY AND NATURE RESERVE AT TAMBLINGAN
To restore the function of the tropical rainforest around the foot of mount Lesong as a water source for lake Tamblingan in order to maintain its capacity as a reliable source of water for all spring and rivers down. All springs down the lake have to be restored and strengthened by planting more domestic's trees or traditional commodity plantation such as coffee.
To established a forest management program in cooperating reforestation and cleared areas.
To restore the function of Tamblingan and mount Lesong area as a spiritual centre
To established maintenance scheme for cleanliness sanitation and hygine of the whole area but especially at the temple and relocate fishermen settlement out from the lake. The fishermen (22 families) who have been settling around the lake, has to be relocated out from the lake to minimized human activities around the lake . It will prevent the lake to be pressured and polluted by human activities. The new settlement of 24 families fishermen at Asah Gobleg can be combined with stop over faculties such as parking lot, nursery centre, fruits/vegetables market, horse stable riding, cycling, gift shop etch. All those activities will increase the income of the fishermen compared when they still living around the lake.
To develop certain areas ( presently own privately by local people ) to become an environment interpretation center with education facilities for children, local people and foreign visitor.
To established by rainforest as a protected district nature reserve restricting access to motorized vehicles.
To provide more environmentally sympathetic activities for the farmers and fisherman living around the forest and lake.
To retain the peaceful and natural atmosphere the Lake Tamblingan and its water quality. To use of the boats on Lake Tamblingan to the traditional dug out emergency for the purpose of scientific study only wooden rowing boats or electrical powered boats should be permitted.
To provide areas set aside for the study of wild life.
To prohibit the trapping of wild birds and animal in the area except those which are officially designated as pest species.
To encourage the captive breeding of birds traditionally kept as song birds.
To establish an economic activities network at all village around down the lake for providing employment, opportunity for the young generation therefore they will not become centre of stealing wood.
A small laboratory field study center for biological research and study.
A simple and natural accommodation compound of 10 – 15 rooms for residential study and appreciation courses at every village.
A small building for meditation and introspection
A 30 seat warung serving vegetarian food.
A bird and animal breeding centre with a captive breeding and release programs for threatened species.
A commercial bird breeding centre for song birds.
A tree nursery for wild forest tree and the traditional medicine plantation.
A local museum for artifact and natural history.
A tourist information centre highlighting the natural attraction of the area.
A multi purpose building ( wantilan ) for meetings, conferences and education classes.
A bird watching hide situated at the lake side and another raised high in the forest canopy.
NON – SMOKING TOURIST ATTRACTION AREA
The beautiful scenery and relatively unspoiled environment of Tamblingan and mount Lesong are obvious attraction for cultural visitor and other wanting to indulge in outdoor activities. However the obvious presence of large numbers of visitor would come to enjoy. Careful consideration is therefore necessary in establishing activities that would enhance the areas potential and not destroy it. It is quiet possible to incorporate non polluting activities and sport, restricting them carefully to fit in with each other and the natural environment. Facilities could be provided by the local people for walking, cycling, horseback riding and trekking but always with a principal of healthy, non polluting activity in mind. For this reason it is suggested that all facilities area promoted as “ non – smoking . It is also suggested that a motor and noise free zone be set up prohibiting motor boating and motor transport, except local public transportation, with the reasonable distance from the lake shore.
IV LEGAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ESTABLISHING THESE PROPOSALS
It is necessary for organization to be an independent and non – government body having close cooperation and coordination with Department of Forestry, Daerah Tingkat II, Kabupaten Buleleng and the Department of the Environment. It is essential that International contact be made to encourage cooperation and funding and to gather advice from expert in the field of eco tourism.
Has to be established for up dating all sources of information and to get assistance of experts and funding.